What is thread?

Thread, is tooth type cross section through the axis of the cylindrical or conical, and along the surface of the spiral movement form continuous convex part. That is in a cylinder or cone matrix surface produced spiral line shape, with a particular section of continuous convex part.

In mechanical processing, thread is in a cylindrical shaft (or inner hole surface) with a cutting tool or grinding wheel, work piece turn a turn at this time, the cutting tool along the work piece axis movement fixed distance, cutting tool cut trail out of work piece is thread. Of course, in addition to threaded work piece, bolt and nut have thread, so that they are firmly connected.

Thread according to matrix shape can be divided into cylindrical thread and conical thread. According to its location in the matrix can be divided into external thread and internal thread, that is to say, excircle surface shapes thread called external thread; inner bore surface shapes thread called internal thread. According to its cross section shape can be divided into triangle thread, rectangle thread, trapezoid thread, sawtooth thread and other special shapes thread. In other words, what shape is the section of thread, is called what thread. Such as the cross section is circular arc is called circular arc thread.

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Thread processing method

There are two methods of machining out internal thread and external thread on the work piece, respectively are cutting processing and rolling processing.

Cutting processing method: thread cutting, generally refers to with forming cutting tool or grinding on the work piece machining thread method, mainly include the turning, milling, tapping, mantle fiber, grinding etc.

1, thread turning, turning thread on a lathe can use forming tool or chaser. By forming tool turning thread, due to its cutting tool structure is simple, is only suitable for single piece and small batch production of thread work piece; With chaser turning thread, high production efficiency, but its cutting tool structure is complex, and only applicable to middle and mass production turning teeth short thread artifacts.

2, thread milling, in the thread milling machine by disc cutter or comb milling cutter for milling. Disc cutter is mainly used for milling screw rod, worm and other artifacts on the trapezoidal external thread; Comb milling cutter for milling ordinary internal, external threads and taper thread, is appropriate for batch production general accuracy thread work piece.

3, thread grinding, use cast iron etc. softer material to make nut type or screw rod type thread tool, proceed forward and reverse rotation grinding of work piece have been processed thread exists screw pitch error part, in order to improve the accuracy of screw pitch.

4, tapping, it is to use a certain distance to tap screwing in the work piece on the preboring in the bottom hole machining internal thread. Mantle fiber, use threading die cut-out external thread at barstock (or pipe material) work piece. It is suitable for machining small diameter internal thread. Tapping and mantle fiber can use manual operation, also can use lathe, drilling machine, tapping machine and diehead threading machine.

Rolling processing method: screw thread rolling, use forming rolling mould make work piece produce plastic deformation for the thread processing method. This processing method has the advantage that its surface roughness is less than the cutting way of thread. After rolling thread surface because cooling hardening can improve the strength and hardness, compared with cutting processing, high material utilization, productivity is growing exponentially.

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Machine tool part material selection

Machine tool has variety of parts, according to the structural characteristic, function and the load characteristic, can be divided into shaft part, gear part, machine tool guide rail, etc. And the different parts used materials will be different, so have to be very cautious on select material.

Machine tool shaft part material selection

Machine tool spindle is the most main shaft parts in machine tool, but because machine tool type is different, main shaft working condition is also different. According to the load size and type of the main shaft while working, generally can be divided into four categories:

(1) Light load main shaft. Working load is small, the impact load is not big, shaft neck without serious wear and tear. Such as ordinary lathe main shaft, this shaft is generally made of 45 steel.

(2) Medium load main shaft. Medium load, serious wear and tear, and have certain impact load. Such as milling machine main shaft, is commonly made of alloy hardened and tempered steel, such as 40 Cr steel.

(3) Heavy load main shaft. Working load is big, wear and impact are more serious. For example, the work load is big combination machine main shaft. It is commonly made of 20CrMnTi steel.

(4) High precision main shaft. Some machine tool main shaft working load is small, but the accuracy demand is very high, so the choice of material deformation should be minimal after heat treatment, in work process wear should be very mild. For example, the precision boring machine main shaft, is commonly made of 38CrMoAlA dedicated nitriding steel.

Machine tool gear part material selection

(1) Light load gear. Rotation speed is generally not high, mostly made of 45 steel.

(2) Medium load gear. It is commonly made of 45 steel. And large size gear, is made of 40 Cr etc. alloy hardened and tempered steel. For example, the machine tool gear of driving system and feeding system.

(3) Heavy load gear. For some large working load, especially in high speed and large impact load most of the gear are made of 20Cr、20CrMnTi etc. carburizing steel. For example: some important drive gear of transmission.

Machine tool guide rail material selection

The accuracy of machine tool guide rail affects the precision of the whole machine tool, so the machine tool guide rail is usually made of grey cast iron, because grey cast iron is not easy to deformation and wear, and it is under the condition of lubrication abrasion resistance is better.

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What is chip?

In metal cutting processing Produce scrap iron, chipping, serration iron sheet and because of the heat generated by the cutting clinkering scrap iron or united into amorphous metal object general terms is chip.

Metal material performance is different, the slip property is also different, even in the same conditions for cutting, the chip type, and size (deformation degree) is not the same.

Chip after deformation zone severe deformation, increase hardness, plastic drop, and performance become fragile. In the process of chip discharge, when encounter cutter knife and work piece transitional surface or work surface etc. obstacles, such as a part of the strain exceeds the chip material fracture strain values, the chip will be broken. So the work piece material brittleness is bigger, the chip thickness is bigger, the chip curling radius is smaller, chip is more easily broken.

Tapping machine is a machine tool that use screw tap machining internal thread, it is the most widely used a kind of internal thread processing machine tool. When tapping machine machining metal material internal thread, can produce chip, especially in blind hole, it is easy to happen jam phenomenon, so should often clean up, to guarantee the tapping machine machining efficiency, guarantee product quality.

At the time of cleaning chip, it is forbidden to use mouth to blow, because it is easy to chip into eyes, this poses a threat to personal safety. Do not have hands to pull, to avoid cuts or burns. Available brown brushes, pig hair brushes to clean up the chip.

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How to choose multi-axis machine?

In porous drilling at the same time, porous tapping processing at the same time, when choosing multi-axis machine for porous processing, many clients often encounter the following three problems.

1, use multi-axis machine proceed porous drilling processing at the same time, different diameter size of the hole, the required speed is different, how to achieve? Answer: when you customize multi-axis machine, can according to aperture size required speed turn relation customize gear box speed ratio, make gear box customize different aperture corresponding multi-axis machine output shaft has speed difference relation.

2, use multi-axis machine proceed porous tapping processing at the same time, different diameter size of the thread hole, its screw pitch is different, how to achieve? Answer: when you customize multi-axis machine, can according to the requirements of the thread hole diameter size required screw pitch corresponding rotate speed turn relation customize gear box speed ratio, make gear box customize different thread hole diameter corresponding multi-axis machine output shaft has speed difference relation.

3, use multi-axis machine proceed porous processing at the same time, different surface elevation difference, how to achieve? Answer: each hole diameter surface elevation difference is not the same, can use lengthening multi-axis machine output shaft way or lengthening drill way to achieve. Under normal condition, elevation difference within 10 mm uses drill length to achieve, more than 10 mm can use lengthening multi-axis machine output shaft length to achieve.

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Automated machine development

In mechanical manufacturing, automation technology has more and more be taken seriously. Along with the computer technology for the mainstream of modern science technology development and market product competition intensifies, traditional mechanical manufacturing technology is difficult to meet modern product diversification development and change with each passing day updating speed.Face many varieties of small batch production proportion increase, product delivery goods quality and cost requirement improvement, require modern manufacturing technology has the very high flexible, how to enhance mechanical manufacturing industry’s use ability of external factor as well as the change ability of product adapt market, as we need to make use of the flexibility of modern automation technology, the maximum limit application in mechanical manufacturing industry, machinery equipment function, efficiency, reliability and product quality to a new level, so as to meet the modern market competition demand.

Compared with the traditional mechanical, automation machinery speed is quickly, efficiency and reliability are high. Under the condition of the personnel cost is so high, use automated machinery is greatly reduces the labor cost, also can reduce danger coefficient, more importantly, can improve the production efficiency and guarantee product quality. It is clear that the importance of automation machinery in mechanical manufacturing industry.

Such as tapping machine is a machine shell, end face, nut, flange and so on with different specifications hole or blind hole of the parts for inner side process internal threads, screws or tooth buckle of mechanical processing equipment.

Compared with traditional tapping machine, automatic tapping machine speed is quickly, high precision, attack the tooth can be smoothly through tooth gauge detection; For high speed continuous cycle operation, one person can operate more devices at the same time, not only save labor cost, but also improve the production quality and quantity.

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Hydraulic transmission system

Hydraulic transmission is a liquid as working medium to transfer power. Hydraulic due to its transmission power is big, easy to transfer and configuration, are widely used in industry, civil industry.

The role of the hydraulic system is by means of changing pressure increase acting force. Hydraulic system executive component hydraulic cylinder and hydraulic motor function are liquid pressure energy convert to mechanical energy, and gain needed straight reciprocating motion or rotational motion. A hydraulic system is good or bad depends on systematic design rationality, system component performance good or bad, system pollution protective and create, and the last one is particularly important.

Tapping machine is a machine tap machining internal thread, it is the most widely used a kind of internal thread processing machine tool. According to different driving power source, the tapping machine can be divided into manual tapping machine, pneumatic tapping machine, electric tapping machine and hydraulic tapping machine, etc.

The hydraulic tapping machine’s advantage is:

1, hydraulic technology is mature, use and maintenance convenient, fast.

2, hydraulic system output power is strong, constant torque, rotational speed is stepless speed regulation, good plasticity.

3, hydraulic tapping machine is in light weight, small volume, small motion inertia, fast reaction.

4, can automatically realize overload protection.

5, with a threaded hole axis Angle automatically follow and screw pitch automatic compensation function.

6, with tapping process intelligent protection system, can protect screw tap and equipment.

7, it is easy to realize the automation of machine, when using electro hydraulic combined control, not only can achieve a higher degree automatic control process, but also can realize remote control.

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Automatic tapping machine advantage

In today’s social development by leaps and bounds, the technology unceasingly in the update, a lot of old mechanical equipment has been unable to keep up with the pace of the times. Currently is needed to be more security, more energy efficient, more intelligent and higher efficiency of mechanical equipment, automatic tapping machine appeared.

Automatic tapping machine advantage: reduce working procedure, improve automation degree. Automatic tapping machine will be tapping part stamping and tapping movement combined with an organic whole, direct tapping and punching on the punching machine simultaneous.

Improve production efficiency, using automatic tapping machine can save work time, tapping precision is high, short time, improve production efficiency.

Reduce cost: use automatic tapping machine can reduce probability because material feeding error produce, decrease in the process product library amount, thus saving the cost.

Save energy: when will part stamping and tapping combining, automatic tapping machine entirely by mechanical transmission, thereby saving machine energy that specially is used for tapping.

Save labor: automatic tapping machine to combine part of tapping and pressing into a process, fully automated, thus saving labor costs.

Reduce the defective rate: automatic tapping machine precise positioning can reduce the damage probability of tap, and can reduce the waste probability due to feeding error. Automatic tapping machine can use the factory existing such as ordinary drilling machine, manual tapping machine etc. old machine to be modified, so as to achieve the purpose of save time and save money.

Affect automatic tapping machine tapping speed has a lot of factors, such as: tap material, type, eating into the number of teeth, the hole shape, cutting material and cutting oil etc. using condition. So when choosing automatic tapping machine must take into account these factors.

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Bearing classification and seal

Bearing is fixed in a mechanical transmission process and reduce the load friction coefficient part. In other words, while other parts on the shaft when each other produce relative movement, used to reduce the friction coefficient and keep shaft centre position fixed at part in the process of power transfer. In modern machinery equipment bearing is a kind of indispensable part. Its main function is to support the mechanical revolution body, to reduce equipment in transmission process mechanical load friction coefficient.

According to different motion components friction quality, bearing can be divided into two categories of rolling bearing and sliding bearing. Divide careful a little, there are many varieties of bearings. Such as centripetal bearing, thrust bearing, liquid lubrication bearing, incomplete liquid lubrication bearing, no lubrication bearing, self-aligning ball bearing, spherical roller bearing, tapered roller bearing, double row deep groove ball bearing, thrust ball bearing, deep groove ball bearing, angular contact ball bearing, cylindrical roller bearing, needle roller bearing, etc.

Bearing the seal can be divided into two categories, own seal and plus seal. Bearing with own seal is sealed the bearing itself made it into the performance of the device. Such as bearing has dust cover and sealing ring, etc. This seal take up the space is small, easy installation and disassembly, cost is also low. And bearing plus seal performance device, is in installation end cover etc. internal manufacturing into with various properties sealing device.

Choose the bearing plus seal should consider the following several major factors: bearing lubricant and types; Bearing work environment, taking up space; Shaft supporting structure advantage, allowing the angular deviation; Sealing surface circumference speed; Bearing operating temperature; The manufacturing cost.

Bearing is the important foundation part in all kinds of machinery equipments, its accuracy, performance, life and reliability play a conclusive role in main engine accuracy, performance, life and reliability. So visible, bearing is widespread application in all kinds of machinery, such as machine tool, pneumatic press machine, drilling machine, etc.

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High speed steel introduction

High speed steel is a kind of high hardness, high wear resistance and high heat resistance of tool steel, during quenching even if cooled in the air can also hardened, so also called high speed tool steel or rapid steel. High speed steel process performance is good, strength and toughness cooperate with good, therefore are mainly used for manufacturing complex thin blade and impact resistance of the metal cutting tool, also can make high temperature bearing and cold extrusion dies, etc.

High speed steel heat treatment process is relatively complex, must after annealing, quenching, tempering and so on a series of process. High speed steel normally uses electric furnace production, once adopted powder metallurgy method manufacturing high speed steel, make the carbide are extremely tiny particles evenly distributed on the base, improve the service life.

High speed steel is generally not doing tensile strength test, and give priority to with metallography, hardness test. High speed steel will not be obvious decarburization, high speed steel carbide is very uniform, high speed steel is made of cutting tool, in addition to because it has high hardness, high wear resistance and toughness enough, there is a very important factor is it has a red hardness. (Red hardness refers to the cutting tool in high speed cutting, the blade in the red state’s ability to resist softening).

According to the different purposes of high speed steel, can be divided into two kinds of universal and special purposes. Universal high speed steel: mainly used in the manufacture cutting hardness HB 300 or less metal material cutting tool such as drill, tap, blade, and precision cutting tool such as gear hob, pinion cutter, broach, etc. Special purpose high speed steel: including cobalt high speed steel and superhard high speed steel, mainly used in the manufacture cutting difficult-to-machine metal such as high temperature alloy, titanium alloy and high strength steel, etc, cutter.

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